In this field of engineering engineers study and assess the ground of the area where a structure either currently stands or is planned to be built. This includes analysing the soil and rocks to ensure that the foundations are safe and stable.
Some civil engineers specialise in the environmental industry and become environmental consultants. They apply the principles of engineering with soil science, biology and chemistry to develop effective solutions for all sorts of environmental problems. They are usually involved in efforts to improve recycling, waste disposal, water pollution, public health and so on.
Highway engineering focuses on the design, construction and maintenance of roads, bridges and tunnels. This includes implementing both permanent and temporary measures that not only ensure the effective transportation of people and goods, but also help to reduce traffic congestion, minimise environmental impact and better road safety.
Civil engineers who specialise in the rail sector work to design, build and maintain railway systems. This includes improving the infrastructure, tracks, drainage, power and earthworks of the systems.